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Solar Energy & Gas Studies
Solar Energy Systems ...      
 
 
  Home : Solar Energy & Gas Studies Home
 
 
     the Titles ...
1  Solar Power Systems
 
1.1  Download Study in 4  Parts, Solar Energy Power Systems, in English
1.2  Solar Power System for home residential applications, in English
1.3  Solar power system components, in English
1.4  Design & Determine the Sizing of Solar PV system, Inverter, Battery, ...
2  Download Course,  The Building Electrical Installation- French Language
3 Download Study, Produce of Gas from the scrap, in English, French & Arabic
 
 
 
 
 
Photovoltaic Solar Power Farm
 
    1- Solar Power Systems
  • Solar panel systems (also known as solar photovoltaics or solar PV) convert the sun’s energy into electricity.
  •  Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.
  • Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.
   1.1- Download Study in 4  Parts, Solar Energy Power Systems, in English
  This Study Consists of 4 Parts, in English :
  1. Solar Energy Systems, Introduction
  2. Solar Home Systems
  3. Solar Power Stations
  4. Solar Thermal Energy
 

 

 1.1- Solar Energy Systems, Introduction

 (0.5 MB zip file)   download  

 

 1.2- Solar Home Systems

(1.5 MB zip file)   download  

  • Solar Power Home System, for Home applications
  • Determine the Sizing of Solar PV system, Inverter, Battery,
  • Gallery, Solar Power Systems
 1.3- Solar Power Stations

 (3.3 MB zip file)   download  

  1.  Current Solar Technologies
    • Parabolic Trough
    • Solar Power Tower
    • Fresnel Reflector
    • Dish Stirling/Engine
    • Enclosed Trough
  2. List of Solar Power Stations
    • Operational Solar Thermal Power Stations
    • Solar Thermal Power Stations under construction
    • Solar Thermal Power Stations, in Other Countries
 1.4- Solar Thermal Energy

 (0.56 MB zip file)   download  

  • Gallery, Solar Water Heating
  • Thermosiphon / Thermosyphon
  • Solar Water Heating
  • Types of Solar Heating Systems
  • Types of Solar Collectors
Photovoltaic Solar Power Home
 
 
Floating Photovoltaic Solar Power Station
 
 
Solar Dish Power Station
 
   More Information about this Study - Plan, Data, Size & ... 
  • Solar Energy Systems Study Consists of 4 Parts
  • Technologies, Plans, Data, References, Information, Pictures, Galleries,  ...
  • English Text, Html document = 203 Files and 5 Folder and 149 photos
  • Size of Study =Size of  4 Parts of this Study = 0.5 MB Zip file  + 1.5 MB Zip file+3.3 MB Zip file + 0.56 MB Zip file = 5.86 or 6 MB zip file
 
 
  1.2 Solar Power System for home residential applications, in English
 
   The Design of this Solar Electrical System :                                    >>>>>
  1. Input Source components:
    1. Solar Panels - converts sunlight into DC electricity
    2. Auxiliary energy sources: Ac grid input, diesel generator or other renewable energy sources
    3. battery bank - stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand
  2. Controller  + Inverter:  controller – regulates the voltage and current coming from the Solar panels ...,  Inverterconverts DC panels  into a clean AC ..
  3. Output Source:  electrical appliances - such as lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerat or, etc
Click on the pictures to enlarge this Design
  
 
 
     1.3- Solar power system components, in English:
Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to your system type, site location and applications. The major components for solar PV system are solar charge controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads (appliances).
  1. PV module – converts sunlight into DC electricity.
  2. Solar charge controller – regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels going to battery and prevents battery overcharging and prolongs the battery life.
    Battery – stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand
  3. Inverter – converts DC output of PV panels or wind turbine into a clean AC current for AC appliances or fed back into grid line.
  4. Load – is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerator, etc.
  5. Auxiliary energy sources - is diesel generator or other renewable energy sources.
 
 
Photovoltaic Solar Power Farm in USA, Station Photovoltaic Solar Power Home Photovoltaic Floating Solar Power System, Station Solar Water Heating System
 
 
     1.4- Design & Determine the Sizing of Solar PV system, Inverter, Battery, ...  OR   How to Design Solar PV System?
1. Determine power consumption demands
The first step in designing a solar PV system is to find out the total power and energy consumption of all loads that need to be supplied by the solar PV system as follows:

     1.1 Calculate total Watt-hours per day for each appliance used.
           Add the Watt-hours needed for all appliances together to get the total Watt-hours per day which must be delivered to the appliances.

     1.2 Calculate total Watt-hours per day needed from the PV modules.
            Multiply the total appliances Watt-hours per day times 1.3 (the energy lost in the system) to get the total Watt-hours per day which must be provided by the panels.

2. Size the PV modules

Different size of PV modules will produce different amount of power. To find out the sizing of PV module, the total peak watt produced needs. The peak watt (Wp) produced depends on size of the PV module and climate of site location. We have to consider “panel generation factor” which is different in each site location. For Thailand, the panel generation factor is 3.43. To determine the sizing of PV modules, calculate as follows:

     2.1 Calculate the total Watt-peak rating needed for PV modules
           Divide the total Watt-hours per day needed from the PV modules (from item 1.2) by 3.43 to get  the total Watt-peak rating needed for the PV panels needed to operate the appliances.

     2.2 Calculate the number of PV panels for the system
           Divide the answer obtained in item 2.1 by the rated output Watt-peak of the PV modules available to you. Increase any fractional part of result to the next highest full number and that will be the
          number of PV modules required.

Result of the calculation is the minimum number of PV panels. If more PV modules are installed, the system will perform better and battery life will be improved. If fewer PV modules are used, the system may not work at all during cloudy periods and battery life will be shortened.

3. Inverter sizing

An inverter is used in the system where AC power output is needed. The input rating of the inverter should never be lower than the total watt of appliances. The inverter must have the same nominal voltage as your battery.
For stand-alone systems, the inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount of Watts you will be using at one time. The inverter size should be 25-30% bigger than total Watts of appliances. In case of appliance type is motor or compressor then inverter size should be minimum 3 times the capacity of those appliances and must be added to the inverter capacity to handle surge current during starting.
For grid tie systems or grid connected systems, the input rating of the inverter should be same as PV array rating to allow for safe and efficient operation.


4. Battery sizing

The battery type recommended for using in solar PV system is deep cycle battery. Deep cycle battery is specifically designed for to be discharged to low energy level and rapid recharged or cycle charged and discharged day after day for years. The battery should be large enough to store sufficient energy to operate the appliances at night and cloudy days. To find out the size of battery, calculate as follows:

     4.1 Calculate total Watt-hours per day used by appliances.
     4.2 Divide the total Watt-hours per day used by 0.85 for battery loss.
     4.3 Divide the answer obtained in item 4.2 by 0.6 for depth of discharge.
     4.4 Divide the answer obtained in item 4.3 by the nominal battery voltage.
     4.5 Multiply the answer obtained in item 4.4 with days of autonomy (the number of days that you need the system to operate when there is no power produced by PV panels) to
 get the required
           Ampere-hour capacity of deep-cycle battery.

Battery Capacity (Ah) = Total Watt-hours per day used by appliances x Days of autonomy
(0.85 x 0.6 x nominal battery voltage)

5. Solar charge controller sizing

The solar charge controller is typically rated against Amperage and Voltage capacities. Select the solar charge controller to match the voltage of PV array and batteries and then identify which type of solar charge controller is right for your application. Make sure that solar charge controller has enough capacity to handle the current from PV array.
For the series charge controller type, the sizing of controller depends on the total PV input current which is delivered to the controller and also depends on PV panel configuration (series or parallel configuration).
According to standard practice, the sizing of solar charge controller is to take the short circuit current (Isc) of the PV array, and multiply it by 1.3
Solar charge controller rating = Total short circuit current of PV array x 1.3
 
   * Example ...

A house has the following electrical appliance usage:

  • One 18 Watt fluorescent lamp with electronic ballast used 4 hours per day.
  • One 60 Watt fan used for 2 hours per day.
  • One 75 Watt refrigerator that runs 24 hours per day with compressor run 12 hours and off 12 hours.

   The system will be powered by 12 Vdc, 110 Wp PV module.

  1. Determine power consumption demands
     Total appliance use = (18 W x 4 hours) + (60 W x 2 hours) + (75 W x 24 x 0.5 hours)
      = 1,092 Wh/day
     Total PV panels energy needed  = 1,092 x 1.3
      = 1,419.6 Wh/day.

  2. Size the PV panel, Solar Array
     2.1 Total Wp of PV panel capacity  needed = 1,419.6 / 3.4
      = 413.9 Wp
     2.2  Number of PV panels needed = 413.9 / 110
      = 3.76 modules
    Actual requirement = 4 modules
          So this system should be powered by at least 4 modules of 110 Wp PV module.

  3. Inverter sizing
        Total Watt of all appliances = 18 + 60 + 75 = 153 W
        For safety, the inverter should be considered 25-30% bigger size.
        The inverter size should be about 190 W or greater.

  4. Battery sizing
        Total appliances use = (18 W x 4 hours) + (60 W x 2 hours) + (75 W x 12 hours)
        Nominal battery voltage = 12 V
        Days of autonomy = 3 days

    Battery capacity = [(18 W x 4 hours) + (60 W x 2 hours) + (75 W x 12 hours)] x 3
                                                    (0.85 x 0.6 x 12)
        Total Ampere-hours required 535.29 Ah
        So the battery should be rated 12 V 600 Ah for 3 day autonomy.
     

  5.   Solar charge controller sizing
        PV module specification
        Pm = 110 Wp
        Vm = 16.7 Vdc
        Im = 6.6 A
        Voc = 20.7 A
        Isc = 7.5 A
        Solar charge controller rating = (4 strings x 7.5 A) x 1.3 = 39 A
        So the solar charge controller should be rated 40 A at 12 V or greater.

 
Installation, Photovoltaic Solar Power Home
 
Photovoltaic Solar Power Station
 
Floating Photovoltaic Solar Power Station
 
Photovoltaic Solar Power Home
   * Note:  Commercial Systems in UK:
  Let’s take a look at the smaller solar systems available and their benefits in the UK:
  • A 4kw system will need between 10 and 20 solar panels, with an initial cost of around £7,000 for the module and installation. But over 20 years, the feed-in payments and electricity savings you make could add up to around £16,000. Plus government payments at the current tariff could get you around £760 in savings and earnings per year.
    * Calculations based on roof with 35 degree angle and South facing with little or no shade. Most household roofs will be suitable for a 4kW solar panel, though you will need 21m2 of roof space
  • A 10kw system will cost about £20,000 to purchase and install, and offers returns of about £2,000 per year. That’s a great return rate for any business. Quite large premises are required to install a system providing 10kW, though it can provide the energy needs of many small businesses.
  • A 25kw system is for you if your company has large energy demands, either due to the nature of your work or the size of the operation. Typically warehouses or other very large buildings are required to accommodate such a system. They can cost in the region of £50,000 to install, but can still make good financial sense for your company, as various businesses across the UK have discovered.
 
 
    2- Download, Electrical Installation Course in French   Cours d'Installation des reseau Electrique,  en Français
   Cours d'Installation des reseau Electrique,  en Français : French text - 290 KB zip file   download
 
  • Installation Electrique, Montage Lumiere, Les Titles
    • Prise de Courant
    • Simple Allumage
    • Double Allumage
    • Selection de 2 Circuits
    • Le Va -et-Vient
    • Permutateur
    • Telerupteur
  • Ce Cours des  infos, plans electrics ...
  • Texte en Français, file type HTML
 
 
 
    3- Download Study, Produce of Gas from the scrap, in English & French & Arabic
   3.1- Study, how to Produce the Gas from the scrap (25 KB zip file)   download
          the Description of this Study :
 
  • The steps to produce and assemble the gasfrom the solid Scraps(human, animal or other).
  • The fermentation  of the solidscraps can cause the production of the gas .
  • The gas stocked in the tank to be use to produce the electricity, to heat,  or ,,,
  • A diagram summarize the operation of the production of the gas.
  • English  text,  HTML file.
   3.2- Etude, comment produire du gaz des dechets solides (25 KB zip file)   download
          la Description de cette Etude :
 
  • Les etapes pour produire et assembler le gazdes dechets solides (humains, animals ou ...).
  • La  fermentation des dechets solides causera la production du gaz.
  • Le gaz stocké dans le réservoir s'utilise dans la production d'electricite, dans le réchauffement, ou ,,,
  • Un schèma resume l'operation de production du gaz.
  • Texte en Français, file type HTML
   3.3-  (25 KB zip file)   download
 
   
 
 
 
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